HISTORY OF MATHEMATICS

history of matematikawww.rangkumanmakalah.com

 History of mathematics – The achievements of Muslims in the field of mathematics are extremely remarkable. A regular study of this science, like all other sciences began during the time of second Abbasi Khalif Al-Mansur in the second half of the 8th century AD. During this period the work on mathematics was exclusively accomplished by the Muslims.

                   Some stimulus came from Indian and Greek works that were later translated into Arabic. During the 5th century AH (the 11th century AD) nearly all original and creative work was done by Muslims, and even non Muslims wrote all their mathematical works in Arabic. The Muslims used numbers including the zero for counting with the letters of alphabet. Thus they made arithmetic simple and applicable to the problems of everyday life in connection with commerce and trade. The number zero holds great importance in arithmetic. Without the zero it is not possible to indicate the figure like tens, hundreds, etc.

                The West learned the use of numerals from the Arabs, and therefore called them the Arabic numerals. The diffusion of the Arabic numeral in Christian Europe was very slow. The Christian mathematicians either used the old Roman numeral and the abacus, or used the Arabic numerals together with their old system. It was only in the 12th century after learning from the Muslims that western scholars were able to produce some literature on the number system without columns and incorporating the zero. This system was named algorithms (or algorism) which was derived by the Latin writes from al-Khawarizmi (a native of Khawarizm), a distinguished Muslim mathematician, astronomer and geographer of the 9th century AD who flourished under the Khalif al Ma’mun. His full name was ‘Abd Allah Muhammad al-Khawarizmi. 

             Algebra was made into an exact science by the Muslims. Al-Khawarizmi named his book dealing with this subject as “Kitab al- Jabr wal- Muqabalah” (the book of restitution and comparison). The word “Jabr” means restitution. It is the adding of something to a given sum or multiplying it so that it becomes equal to another value. The word muqabalah means comparison and is applied in comparing two sides of an equation such as A+B=C. The word al-jabar (Algebra) was originally used for simple operations, like additions and multiplication, but later it evolved into an entire subject. In addition, the Muslims founded analytical geometry as well as plane and spherical trigonometry.

               Al-Hijaj ibn Yusuf, who flourished between 78G AD and 833 AD in Baghdad, was the first to translate Euclid’s Element into Arabic. This work was translated twice, first under the Khalif Harun al-Rasheed and second under his son al-Ma’mun.

history of mathematics

Prestasi Muslim dalam bidang matematika sangat luar biasa. Sebuah studi reguler ilmu ini, seperti semua ilmu yang lain dimulai selama masa Khalifah kedua bani abbasiah Al-Mansur pada paruh kedua abad ke-8. Selama periode ini pekerjaan pada matematika secara eksklusif dicapai oleh kaum Muslim. 

Beberapa stimulus datang dari India dan karya Yunani yang kemudian diterjemahkan ke dalam bahasa Arab. Selama 5 abad H (pada abad 11 M) hampir semua karya asli dan kreatif dilakukan oleh Muslim, dan bahkan non Muslim menulis semua karya matematika mereka dalam bahasa Arab. Kaum Muslim menggunakan angka termasuk nol untuk menghitung dengan huruf alfabet. Dengan demikian mereka membuat perhitungan aritmatika sederhana dan berlaku untuk masalah-masalah kehidupan sehari-hari dalam kaitannya dengan perdagangan. Angka nol memiliki peranan yang sangat penting dalam aritmatika. Tanpa nol tidak mungkin mengindikasikan figur seperti puluhan, ratusan, dll. 

Bangsa barat belajar menggunakan angka dari Arab, dan karenanya menyebut mereka angka-angka Arab. Difusi dari angka Arab di Eropa Kristen itu sangat lambat. Para matematikawan Kristen menggunakan angka Romawi kuno dan sempoa, atau menggunakan angka Arab bersama-sama dengan sistem lama mereka. Barulah pada abad ke-12 setelah belajar dari kaum Muslim bahwa sarjana Barat mampu menghasilkan beberapa literatur tentang sistem bilangan tanpa kolom dan menggabungkan nol. Sistem ini diberi nama algoritma (atau algorism) yang diturunkan dari bahasa Latin dari tulisan al-Khawarizmi (yang berasal dari Khawarizm), seorang matematikawan muslim terkemuka,  astronom, dan ahli geografi dari abad 9 yang berkembang di bawah Khalif al Makmun. Nama lengkapnya adalah ‘Abd Allah Muhammad al-Khawarizmi. 

Aljabar dibuat menjadi ilmu pasti oleh umat Islam. Al-Khawarizmi nama bukunya berhubungan dengan subjek ini sebagai “Kitab al-Jabr wal-Muqabalah” (buku restitusi dan perbandingan). Kata “Jabr” berarti restitusi. Ini adalah penambahan jumlah sesuatu untuk diberikan atau mengalikan sehingga menjadi sama dengan nilai yang lain. Kata muqabalah berarti perbandingan dan diterapkan dalam membandingkan dua sisi dari sebuah persamaan seperti A + B = C. Kata al-jabar (Aljabar) pada awalnya digunakan untuk operasi sederhana, seperti penambahan dan perkalian, tetapi kemudian berkembang menjadi seluruh subjek. Selain itu, Muslim mendirikan geometri analitik sebagus pesawat dan trigonometri bulat. 

Al-Hijaj bin Yusuf, yang berkembang antara tahun 78G dan 833 Masehi di Baghdad, adalah yang pertama untuk menerjemahkan Elemen Euclid ke dalam bahasa Arab. Karya ini diterjemahkan dua kali, pertama di bawah Khalif Harun al-Rasheed dan kedua di bawah putranya Al-Ma’mun.

Adjective or Relative Clause is a group of words having subject and predicate that is used to modify a noun. Adjective clause is put after the noun it modified. A dependent clause used as an adjective within a sentence. It normally begins with a relative pronoun or relative adverb.

WHO                          :           subject person

WHOM                       :           object person

WHICH                      :           subject or object thing

THAT             :           subject or object person or thing

WHOSE                      :           possession (possessive) person

OF WHICH                :           possession (possessive) thing

WHERE                      :           place

WHY                          :           reason

WHEN                        :           time

Example:

The young man who helped you last night is my new neighbour.

The girl whom he called Anna is very kind-hearted.

He will renovate the old house which our grandfather built in 1920.

I thanked the woman that helped me.

The man whose motor bike is new is my father.

They are going to live in the house of which owner working in Korea.

The house where I live is big.

We are trying to evaluate the reason why we lost in the basketball match.

I didn’t know the time when my cousin arrived.

In the above example, the adjective clauses are the bold italicized parts of the sentences.

Those sentences are the combination of two sentences:

The young man is my new neighbour. He helped you last night.

The girl is very kind-hearted. He called her Anna.

He will renovate the old house. Our grandfather built it in 1920.

I thanked the woman. She helped me.

The man is my father. His motor bike is new.

They are going to live in the house. Its owner is working in Korea.

The house is big. I live there.

Why did we lose in the basketball match? We are trying to evaluate it.

What time did your cousin arrive? I didn’t know.

 history of mathematics

Share This:

Leave a Reply

Alamat surel Anda tidak akan dipublikasikan. Ruas yang wajib ditandai *